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Welcome to Jenni's Radiation Research and Events Timeline
This page was last updated June 12th, 2006

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Year Event
1801
prism diffracting light into the color spectrum
• Johann W. Ritter discovered ultraviolet radiation when he placed silver chloride, which darkens in violet light, in the colorless area next to the color spectrum from a prism. It darkened, proving the existence of another wave form higher than the violet of visible light

• Sir William Hershel discovered infrared radiation
1895 X-rays are discovered by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen
1896

gavel
• Antoine-Henri Becquerel discovered Natural radioactivity when a mineral containing uranium darkened a covered photographic plate. The new radiation was dissimilar to X-ray radiation, and occurred without any external stimulus

• X-ray pictures used as evidence in a court of law for the first time in history

• Heinrich Rubens and Ernest Fox Nichols at the University of Berlin discovered tetrahertz radiation

1898
Marie and Pierre Curie
• Marie and Pierre Curie discover polonium and another new radioactive element, which they name “radium

Gamma rays are discovered by Paul Ulrich Villard

Two forms of radioactivity are discovered by Ernest Rutherford: alpha rays and beta rays

• Beta rays are proved to consist of high-speed electrons by Fritz Geisel, Antoine-Henri Becquerel, and Marie Curie

1899 • W.H. Rollins conducts experiments which show that X-rays are lethal to mammals
1901 • The atomic disintegration theory of radioactivity, which states atomic nuclei split to form other elements, is presented to the public by Ernst Rutherford and Frederick Soddy in a paper entitled “The Cause and Nature of Radioactivity”
1902 • George Perthes finds X-rays are able to inhibit tumor growth; and he suggests they might be useful in the treatment of cancer
1903 • Results from experiments conducted by C.R. Bardeen illustrate that X-rays induce mutations in toads
1905
Einstein laughing
• Einstein publishes his famous equation of relativity: E = mc2 (energy equals mass times the velocity of light squared). This equation became a cornerstone in the development of nuclear energy. Click here to view the Einstein Archives Online
1907 • X-rays are used to help diagnose digestive tract disorders
1910 Cosmic radiation is discovered by Victor Hess, who discovers that the ionization of air increases with altitude
1912
Geiger counter
• X-rays are proved to be a form of electromagnetic radiation by Max Von Laue. He demonstrates that X-rays create diffraction patterns with crystals

• A radiation detector, the Geiger counter, is revealed by its creator Hans Geiger

1913 • Ernest Rutherford reports seeing a nuclear reaction when he observed that alpha particles passing through nitrogen gas were absorbed and protons emitted. He concluded that nitrogen nuclei had been transformed into oxygen via the reaction
1919 • Film badges to measure radiation exposure are developed
1922 • The Geiger-Muller counter is applied to detecting and measuring the intensity of radiation
1926 • H.J. Muller proves that X-rays can induce mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, and that the occurrence of mutations increases as the level of X-ray dosage applied increases
1927 • Bone cancer is observed in employees painting radium dials and is attributed to alpha radiation

• The Big Bang Theory is proposed as an explanation for the origin of the universe. Click here to go to NASA’s web site about the Big Bang.

1929 • X-rays are used to examine the kidney, ureter, and bladder

• A high-voltage X-ray machine is developed for therapeutic applications by Charles Lauritsen

1930 • The cyclotron is invented by Ernest Lawrence
1931
Van de Graaf generator
• The Van de Graaff generator is designed and built by Dr. Robert J. Van de Graaff, who was a professor at MIT; the generator was originally used as a research tool in early atom-smashing and high energy X-ray experiments

• The existence of the neutron is established by Englishman James E. Chadwick

1932 • Enrico Fermi works out a detailed theory of Beta decay
1934 • The possibility of an atomic chain reaction is discovered by Otto Hahn, who splits the atom for the first time
1938
Enrico Fermi
• Enrico Fermi receives the Nobel Prize for his “discovery of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for the discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”. Click here to read more on the U.S. Department of Energy Research & Development Accomplishments Web Site

Frederic and Irene Joliot-Curie demonstrate that an atomic chain reaction result from the fission of the uranium atom

1939 • Fission reactions are demonstrated by Leo Szilard and Walter Zinn to be self-sustaining due to chain reactions

• Maurice Goldhaker ascertains that beryllium slows fast neutrons which makes them more likely to fission uranium

1940 • Glen Seaborg, Edwin McMillan, Joseph Kennedy, and Arthur Wahl isolate Plutonium. Click here to read more on the U.S. Department of Energy Research & Development Accomplishments Web Site
1941 Glen Seaborg isolated Uranium-233, and established thorium’s nuclear fuel potential

• The U.S. government conceives and executes the top-secret Manhattan project, which is created to produce the first atomic bomb

1942

LANL

photo of a nuclear reactor

• Los Alamos, New Mexico is chosen as the site for the atom bomb laboratory

• Enrico Fermi leads a team of physicists to create the first controlled atomic chain reaction in a mound of uranium and graphite

• A radiation dose of 4 Roentgens a day is proved to be dangerous to humans by H.M. Parker

• Enrico Fermi supervises the design and assembly of an “atomic pile”, later known as a “nuclear reactor

• Clinton (now Oakridge) Laboratory in Oakridge, Tennessee activates the world’s first nuclear reactor

• C. Southam and J. Erlich introduce the notion of hormesis, a beneficial side effect of low-dose radiation

1943 • Glenn Seaborg formulates his “actinide concept” of heavy element electronic structure
1944 • Alvin M. Weinberg, a nuclear physicist and future Director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is quoted telling the Senate’s Special Committee on Atomic Energy that, “Atomic power can cure as well as kill. It can fertilize and enrich a region as well as devastate it. It can widen man’s horizons as well as force him back into the cave.”
1945

A bomb
• In the desert outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico the first atomic bomb is exploded

• America’s second atomic bomb, named “Little Boy”, is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan

• America’s third atomic bomb, named “Fat Man”, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan

• President Truman mandates that the National Academy of Sciences commence studies of the long-term direct effects of the atomic bomb on survivors

1946
Maria Goeppert Mayer
• Physicist Maria Goeppert Mayer develops her “nuclear shell model” explanation of how neutrons and protons within atomic nuclei are structured. Her work explains why nuclei of some atoms are more stable than others, and why some elements have different atomic forms, called “isotopes”. Click here to read about her discovery on the U.S. Department of Energy Research & Development Accomplishments Web Site

(Image to the left courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory)

1948 • The Mayak plutonium facility is put into operation producing plutonium for nuclear weapons in the USSR
1949

President Truman. Photo (c) 1998 Smithsonian Institution; courtesy National Portrait Gallery

• Radiocarbon dating (Carbon-14 dating) is developed by J. R. Arnold and W. F. Libby; it becomes one of the most widely used and best known dating methods

• The U.S. conducts atomic testing of nuclear weapons in the Pacific.

• President Truman requests additional programs to test nuclear weapons in the continental U.S.

• The USSR explodes it first atomic bomb

(Photo to the left (c) 1998 Smithsonian Institution; courtesy National Portrait Gallery)

1950 • Glenn Seaborg and E.M. McMillan share the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for “discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”
1952
D.A. Glaser and his Nobel Prize winning bubble chamber
• Edward Teller leads a team to build the first Hydrogen bomb

• Great Britain detonates its first atomic bomb

• The Atomic Energy Commission builds a “breeder reactor”, able to simultaneously produce both plutonium and energy from uranium fissioning

• D.A. Glaser invents the bubble chamber, which uses superheated liquid to trace the paths of charged particles and the interactions of their nuclei

• Evidence for solar X-rays are discovered by Herbert Friedman
1956

Photo taken inside the Kyshtym plant

• The first Hydrogen bomb is exploded by America over Bikini Atoll in the Pacific

• A public report is released by the National Academy of Sciences Committee stating that there is no safe threshold for radiation exposure; this sparks the ongoing debate among prominent members of the scientific and political communities about the specific hazards of radiation to the world population. Click here to visit the National Academy of Sciences web site

• A buried nuclear waste canister explodes at a Soviet weapons plant near Kyshtym, forcing the evacuation of 10,000 people

1957 • Nuclear bomb fallout is declared harmful to humans by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
1958 • Between 1944 and 1958 Glenn Seaborg discovered 8 elements related to uranium: americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, and nobelium. When element 106 was discovered, it was named after him, seaborgium

• France explodes its first atomic bomb

1960

Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research

• A key route of entry of radionuclides from fallout into the human body is determined to be inhalation. The Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research initiates studies on the effects of inhaling such radionuclides, and later goes on to study the inhalation of aerosols of other radioisotopes related to nuclear reactor accidents. Today, the organization is known as Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

• A.R. Bleich publishes a book: The Story of X-Rays (New York: Dover); this book later becomes the inspiration for Matthew C. Beard's famous paper, "Progress towards two-dimensional biomedical imaging with THz spectroscopy". (2003)

In his paper, Mr. Beard writes: “Imaging capabilities are of fundamental importance in medicine and biology. Ever since Wilhelm Roentgen produced the striking x-ray image of Professor von Kolliker’s hand, including his ring, during a public lecture on 23 January 1896, the medical community has been acutely aware of the tremendous possibilities afforded by the ability to visualize or capture an image that cannot be observed with the naked eye.”

1961
Nuclear Shell Model
• Maria Goeppert Mayer shares the Nobel Prize in Physics for her work regarding her “nuclear shell model”

click here to view a larger image of the Nuclear Shell Model

1963 • 100 nations sign a treaty that bans nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere

• China detonates its first atomic bomb

1964 • Plutonium is released into the atmosphere during a partial meltdown of a reactor outside of Annan, Scotland
1967
Dr. Alice Stewart
• Alice Stewart and George Kneale publish a study proving that children in England and Wales have an increased risk of cancer due to radiation from obstetric X-rays
1970 • A report is published by the National Academy of Science’s Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee I (BEIR I) which recommends using the Linear No-threshold (LNT) model for estimating radiation exposure risks. The LNT model presumes that any radiation exposure leads to increased risk of cancer
1972 • The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) issues a report questioning the validity of the LNT model approach to estimating radiation risks. This sparks the ongoing debate over the ability of the model

• India explodes its first atomic bomb

1974 • A nuclear reactor in Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania experiences a meltdown causing radioactive emissions to be spread over a multistate area. Reports state that doses to the public were very low and harmless
1979 • T. Luckey publishes a monograph in the CRC Press that suggests low doses of radiation are good for you. This stimulates review of hormesis theory
1981

John N. Bahcall and Raymond Davis, Jr.

From 1967 to 1985 Dr. Raymond Davis, Jr. consistently studied neutrinos. He was quoted as saying “Neutrinos are fascinating particles, so tiny and fast that they can pass straight through everything, even the earth itself.”

Dr. Davis was the first scientist to detect solar neutrinos
1982 • The Health Physics Journal publishes an article by M. Brucer that fires up the radiation hormesis debate. The title of this article is “Radiation is Good for You”

• John N. Bahcall and Raymond Davis, Jr. published a paper entitled "An Account of the Development of the Solar Neutrino Problem", in 1982. Click here to view it (PDF format)

1983 The adaptive response in cells is demonstrated to be a protective mechanism against radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco
1984 • Information indicating that low doses of radiation are beneficial is presented at a conference on radiation hormesis in Oakland, California. Key information was published by the Health Physics Journal (1987)
1986

The infamous mango; the first ever irradiated food made available for public consumption

Irradiated food was made available for the first time in history at a farmer’s market in Miami, Florida

• In a controlled experiment, technicians at the Chernobyl Power Plant in the Ukraine allowed the power in the fourth reactor to fall to dangerously low levels causing a series of unforeseen complications, and resulting in a major meltdown

• A book tracing the historical development of the theory of hormesis is published, entitled Biological Effects of Low Level Exposure to Chemicals and Radiation.

The book is based on a workshop held in May of 1991 at the University of Massachusetts and was edited by Mr. Edward J Calabrese.

1992 • George Bush, Sr. announces that the U.S. will no longer produce plutonium or enriched uranium for nuclear warheads

• Bill Clinton implements the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to identify federally funded ionizing radiation experiments on humans in the U.S. Click here to view their web site

1994 • DOE is directed by Congress to initiate the Low Dose Radiation Research Program (LDRRP) to establish science-based risk assessment standards and guidelines for exposures to low levels of low-LET ionizing radiation. Information on the program can be found by clicking here
1998 • Pakistan detonates its first atomic bomb

• Radiation is approved for use to eliminate microorganisms in all lamb, beef, pork, goat, and veal products by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1999

The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Scientists at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center studies and finds no evidence that an increased thyroid cancer rate was caused by the release of Iodine-131 from the Hanford Site

(Photo to the left by Harley Soltes of The Seattle Times; http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/home/)
2000 • Energy Secretary Bill Richardson announces plans to compensate U.S. workers suffering from ill effects of occupational exposure to radiation

• The NCRP published an evaluation of the LNT (Linear No-threshold) model for ionizing radiation and recommended that it continue to be used in radiation protection

2001

Dr. Raymond Davis, Jr.

• NATO medical chiefs begin research on the potential risks from depleted uranium munitions

• Dr. Raymond Davis, Jr. receives the Nobel Prize in Physics for “pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”. Click here to read more on the U.S. Department of Energy Research & Development Accomplishments Web Site

(Photo to the left Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory)

2004 Nonlinearity in Biology Toxicology and Medicine, publishes a special issue with papers proving that low doses of gamma radiation can protect against cancer occurrence. Co-editors are Drs. B.R. Scott and R.E.J. Mitchel

The protection is based on activation of
DNA repair and/or apoptosis of precancerous cells and has important implications for cancer prevention and cancer therapy



Radiation Research and Events Glossary

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Term Definition
Actinide concept

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A prediction that the actinides – including the first 11 transuranium elements- would form a transition series analogous to the rare earth series of lanthanide elements

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Adaptive response

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The adaptive response involves using a small dose of a given agent (e.g. X rays) to induce natural protection from exposure to a higher dose of the same or a different agent. The small adapting dose can also suppress spontaneously occuring effects such as mutations.

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Alpha rays (Alpha particles)

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A particle made up of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha particles are emitted by some heavy elements that include uranium, plutonium, and radon. Alpha particles can be stopped by a piece of paper and are only a concern when alpha-emitting isotopes are taken into the body (e.g., by inhalation). Many Russian nuclear workers inhaled large amounts of plutonium-239 while working at the Mayak plutonium production facility located in the Chelyabinsk region near Siberia. As a result, some of the Mayak workers developed serious health effects including lung cancer *

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Apoptosis

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Disintegration of cells into membrane-bound particles that are then eliminated by phagocytosis or by shedding; a form of “cell suicide”

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Astrophysics

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The branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of stellar phenomena

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Atomic chain reaction

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A reaction where fissile atoms (e.g., atoms of uranium-235) absorb neutrons, then split, releasing energy and more neutrons, which in turn cause additional atom splittings and neutron releases so that the process continues. Nuclear weapons that were exploded over Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima were based on uncontrolled chain reactions. Radiation exposures resulting form the weapons mainly involved gamma rays but also neutrons. Although the radiation exposures occurred in the forties, radiation induced cancers are still occurring among A-bomb survivors *

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Atomic disintegration theory of radioactivity

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States that atomic nuclei split to form other elements. To read the article that was published by Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy, click here

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Beryllium

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The fourth lightest element. Beryllium is used to make some parts for nuclear weapons and can be harmful if taken into the body *

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Beta Decay

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Beta decay is one process that unstable atoms can use to become more stable through emitting electrons. There are two types of beta decay, beta negative and positive

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Beta rays (Beta particles)

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An electron (positive or negative) emitted during decay of some isotopes. Beta particles have a short range in air and even shorter range in more dense material. Beta-emitting isotopes (e.g. strontium-90) deposited on the skin can cause skin burns and other more serious effects. Japanese fishermen (in a boat called the Lucky Dragon) were exposed to atmospheric fallout from a U. S. thermonuclear test explosion conducted in 1954 in the Pacific Ocean and developed severe skin burns. Beta radiation burns to a large area of the skin can be lethal *

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Breeder reactor

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A nuclear reactor that produces as well as consumes fissionable material, especially one that produces more fissionable material than it consumes

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Chromosomal aberration

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A deviation from the proper or expected course in the threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carry the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information

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Cosmic radiation

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Radiation originating in outer space *

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Cyclotron

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A cyclotron is a machine used to accelerate charged particles to high energies and speeds

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DNA repair

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Each cell has a series of special enzymes to correct the errors in DNA structure and sequence. This protects genetic information against environmental damage and replication errors and restore the DNA to its original state

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Drosophila melanogaster

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The common fruit fly, used to study the basic mechanisms of inheritance

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Electromagnetic radiation

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Radiation consisting of waves of energy associated with electric and magnetic fields resulting from the acceleration of an electric charge

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Fallout (atmospheric fallout)

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Radioactive particles from a nuclear explosion. The particles gradually fall from the sky and deposit on the ground and on other surfaces *

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Fission

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The splitting (breaking apart or fissioning) of the nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239. The fission is usually caused by the absorption of a neutron *

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Gamma rays (Gamma radiation)

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High-energy, penetrating radiation emitted in the radioactive decay of many radionuclides. Gamma rays are similar to X rays, but X rays generally have lower energy. A dose of three gray of gamma rays delivered briefly to the total body would be lethal to about 50% of humans exposed because of severe damage to the hematopoietic system. Deaths would be expected to occur within about 60 days. However, spreading the 3 gray dose over a number of years would be expected to lead to far less net damage to the hematopoietic system. Some nuclear workers in Russia exposed over years, at low rates, to up to 10 gray of gamma rays survived. However, 10 gray delivered briefly to the total body would be considered lethal for all persons exposed *

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High-speed electrons

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High-speed electrons are known as beta particles (see beta rays definition)

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Hormesis

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An effect where a toxic substance acts like a stimulant in small doses, but it is an inhibitor in large doses

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Hydrogen bomb

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A nuclear weapon that releases atomic energy by union of light (hydrogen) nuclei at high temperatures to form helium

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Infrared radiation (AKA Infrared light)

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Infrared light lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared light has a range of wavelengths, just like visible light has wavelengths that range from red light to violet. "Near infrared" light is closest in wavelength to visible light and "far infrared" is closer to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The longer, far infrared wavelengths are about the size of a pin head and the shorter, near infrared ones are the size of cells, or are microscopic

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Iodine-131

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Heavy radioactive isotope of iodine with a half-life of 8 days; used in a sodium salt to diagnose thyroid disease and to treat goiter. For image, click here

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image of an isotope atom

Irradiated food

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Food treated with radiation to kill harmful organisms such as bacteria

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Isotopes

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Forms of the same chemical element that have different numbers of neutrons. Many isotopes are produced in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. The field of nuclear medicine depends on a constant supply of radioactive isotopes (i.e., radioisotopes) *

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LET

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Short for linear energy transfer. LET represents the average amount of radiation energy lost when traversing a small distance *

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Meltdown

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Severe overheating of a nuclear reactor core, resulting in melting of the core and escape of radioactive material

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Microorganism

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An organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size, especially a bacterium or protozoan

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Munitions

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War materiel, especially weapons and ammunition. Often used in the plural

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Natural radioactivity

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The naturally-occurring spontaneous emission of radiation from unstable atoms. Radionuclides lose particles (e.g., alpha or beta) and energy through radioactive decay *

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Neutrinos

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Neutrinos are neutral particles that rarely interact with matter. They have a nearly zero mass.

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Neutron

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Neutrons are uncharged particles found within atomic nuclei

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Nuclear reactor

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Any of several devices in which a chain reaction is initiated and controlled, with the resulting heat typically used for power generation and the neutrons and fission products used for military, experimental, and medical purposes

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Plutonium

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This is a man-made element. Pure plutonium (Pu) is a silvery metal that is heavier than lead. Plutonium found in the environment is often in the oxide form. This form is generally written as PuO2 *

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Precancerous cells

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Of, relating to, or being a condition that typically precedes or develops into a cancer, e.g. a precancerous growth

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Radionuclides

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Radioactive species of an atom *

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Radium

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A rare, brilliant white, luminescent, highly radioactive metallic element found in very small amounts in uranium ores, having 13 isotopes with mass numbers between 213 and 230, of which radium 226 with a half-life of 1,622 years is the most common. It is used in cancer radiotherapy, as a neutron source for some research purposes, and as a constituent of luminescent paints.

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Roentgen

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A unit of radiation exposure equal to the quantity of ionizing radiation that will produce one electrostatic unit of electricity in one cubic centimeter of dry air at 0C and standard atmospheric pressure

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Slow neutrons

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Conventionally defined as neutrons whose kinetic energy is below 1 eV. Slow neutrons frequently undergo elastic scattering interactions with nuclei and may in the process transfer a fraction of their energy to the interacting nucleus

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Solar neutrinos

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Neutrino particles produced in the nuclear reactions that power the sun

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Solar X-rays

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Solar X-ray emissions can consist of X-ray background flux or X-ray bursts. X-ray bursts are a temporary enhancement of the X-ray emission of the sun

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Tetrahertz radiation

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Radio waves sent at terahertz frequencies, known as terahertz radiation or terahertz waves, are in a waveband that is the overlap of what is normally regarded as microwave radiation and far-infrared light.

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Thorium

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A radioactive element found in nature *

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Threshold

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A dose below which there is considered no risk of harm

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Thyroid cancer

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Cancer of the thyroid gland. Thyroid cancer is a form of cancer that can occur in all age groups, particularly those who have had significant exposure to ionizing radiation.

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Transuranium element

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Any of the chemical elements that lie beyond uranium in the periodic table (those with atomic numbers greater than 92)

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Uranium

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A naturally occurring material used for nuclear technology. There are a variety of uranium isotopes that include uranium-235 and uranium-238 *

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Uranium-233

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Isotope of Uranium

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X-rays are able to inhibit tumor growth

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For some cancers, radiation therapy—either from an external beam or from implanted radioactive pellets—is the primary treatment. The usual forms are X rays and gamma rays. Use of radioactive elements specific for particular target organs, such as radioactive iodine specific for the thyroid gland, is effective in treating malignancies of those organs; see the encyclopedia.com section on cancer treatment: http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/section/cancer_Treatment.asp

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X-rays

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Penetrating photon radiation often used in medical diagnosis. Sunlight is also a form of photon radiation but less hazardous than X rays *

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* From Dr. Bobby Scott’s Radiation Glossary for Students, URL: http://www.lrri.org/radiation/radgloss.htm


Radiation Research and Events Images

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Top (Back to The Timeline) Radiation Research & Events Glossary SourcesHome(back to Dr. Scott's web site)
A closer look at what an isotope looks like
A look at how an isotope atom is composed
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A closer look at Maria Goeppert Mayer's Nuclear Shell Model Maria Goeppert Mayer's Nuclear Shell Model
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Three mile Island, Pennsylvania
Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania
Atom Illustration, courtesy of Daniel Trimpey’s web site
From Daniel Trimpey’s electronics web site, www.danieltrimpey.com/learn/electronics



Sources


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This timeline was prepared by Jennifer Di Palma. Preparation of the timeline was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grants No. DE-FG02-03ER63671, DE-FG02-03ER63657, and DE-FG07-00ER62511. Please send inquiries related to the timeline to Jenni at jdipalma@lrri.org. Suggestions for additional research and events are welcome. Thank you!

Top (Back to The Timeline) Radiation Research & Events Glossary Radiation Research & Events ImagesHome (back to Dr. Scott's web site)

Online Lexicons:
• “Info Please” web site: http://www.infoplease.com
• Border’s online dictionary of Health Physics: http://192.92.10.13/hpinfo/
• Jefferson Labs Online Glossary of Scientific Terms: http://education.jlab.org/glossary/
• Glossary of Solar-Terrestrial Terms from the NOAA Space Environment Laboratory: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/GLOSSARY/glossary.html
• Hyper Dictionary online: http://www.hyperdictionary.com
• American Institute of Physics online Reference Library for the history of Physics: http://www.aip.org/history/index.html
Professional Sources
• Dr. Bobby Scott, PhD; Lovelace respiratory Research Institute, home page: www.radiation-scott.org
• Dr. Galina Zhuntova; Institute of Biophysics, Ministry of Health, Russian Federation
• Dave Cardimona, Senior Research Physicist at the Air Force Research Laboratory and Physics instructor at the University of New Mexico
Online Sources/Sites of Interest
• Dr. Bobby Scott’s Radiation Glossary for Students: http://www.lrri.org/radiation/radgloss.htm
• DOE Research & Development Accomplishments: http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/
• DOE Openness, Human Radiation Experiments: http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/
• DOE Low Dose Program Information: http://lowdose.tricity.wsu.edu/about_main.htm
• National Academy of Sciences: http://www4.nationalacademies.org/nas/nashome.nsf
• Low Dose Radiation Research Program Highlights and Events Timeline: http://lowdose.tricity.wsu.edu/history_highlights.htm
• Daniel Trimpey’s electronics web site: http://www.danieltrimpey.com/learn/electronics/
• C-14 Dating (Carbon Dating) web site: http://www.archserve.id.ucsb.edu/Anth3/Courseware/Chronology/08_Radiocarbon_Dating.html
• The History of Solar Neutrino Research: http://www.sns.ias.edu/~jnb/Papers/Popular/snhistory.html
• The Jefferson Labs’ Nuclear Physics Program web site: http://www.jlab.org/sciprog.html
• The CancerWEB Project home page (cancer investigation and treatment web site, includes medical dictionary): http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk
• ARTICLE: Transuranium Elements by Glen Seaborg: http://www.britannica.com/nobel/macro/5001_20_326.html
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